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KO
Occasional Contributor
KO
Posts: 6
Registered: ‎03-05-2012
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Re: Decontamination of Hazardous Preparations

This has been tested and it is found that sodium thiosulfate does a better job of deactivating the sodium hypochlorite than the hydrogen peroxide does.

 

  • The relevant reaction is akin to the iodine reaction: thiosulfate reduces the hypochlorite (active ingredient in bleach) and in so doing becomes oxidized to sulfate. The complete reaction is:

4 NaClO + Na2S2O3 + 2 NaOH → 4 NaCl + 2 Na2SO4 + H2O

 

 

A 1-in-5 dilution of household bleach with water (1 part bleach to 4 parts water) is effective against many bacteria and some viruses, and is often the disinfectant of choice in cleaning surfaces in hospitals (primarily in the United States). The solution is corrosive, and needs to be thoroughly removed afterwards, so the bleach disinfection is sometimes followed by an ethanol disinfection

 

Sodium hypochlorite is a strong oxidizer. Oxidation reactions are corrosive, solutions burn skin and cause eye damage, in particular, when used in concentrated forms. However, as recognized by the NFPA, only solutions containing more than 40% sodium hypochlorite by weight are considered hazardous oxidizers. Solutions less than 40% are classified as a moderate oxidizing hazard (NFPA 430, 2000).

Chlorination of drinking water can oxidize organic contaminants, producing trihalomethanes (also called haloforms), which are carcinogenic.

Household bleach and pool chlorinator solutions are typically stabilized by a significant concentration of lye (caustic soda, NaOH) as part of the manufacturing reaction. Skin contact will produce caustic irritation or burns due to defatting and saponification of skin oils and destruction of tissue. The slippery feel of bleach on skin is due to this process.

Sodium thiosulfate (thio) is an effective chlorine neutralizer. Rinsing with a 5 mg/L solution, followed by washing with soap and water, quickly removes chlorine odor from the hands.

Mixing bleach with some household cleaners can be hazardous. For example, mixing an acid cleaner with sodium hypochlorite bleach generates chlorine gas. Mixing with ammonia solutions (including urine) produces chloramines.

NH4OH + NaClO → NaOH + NH2Cl + H2O

Both chlorine gas and chloramine gas are toxic. Bleach can react violently with hydrogen peroxide and produce oxygen gas:[8]

H2O2(aq) + NaClO(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + O2(g)

It is estimated that there are about 3300 accidents needing hospital treatment caused by sodium hypochlorite solutions each year in British homes (RoSPA, 2002).

One major concern arising from sodium hypochlorite use is that it tends to form chlorinated organic compounds; this can occur during household storage and use as well during industrial use.[4] For example, when household bleach and wastewater were mixed, 1-2% of the available chlorine was observed to form organic compounds.[4] As of 1994, not all the byproducts had been identified, but identified compounds include chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.[4] The estimated exposure to these chemicals from use is estimated to be within occupational exposure limits.[4]

 

 

Good neutralizers for chlorine

There are three good alternatives for neutralizing hypochlorite bleach: bisulfite or metabisulfite, thiosulfite, or peroxide.

Bisulfite and metabisulfite

Bisulfite, or metabisulfite, is the most economical choice. It is widely sold under the name Anti-Chlor by dye suppliers. It does not matter whether you buy sodium bisulfite or potassium bisulfite. It is economical because only small amounts are required. If your dye supplier sells anti-chlor, be sure to order some the next time you order dyes.

Bisulfite is also used as a preservative of fresh and dried foods, such as the potato salad in restaurant salad bars, or dried apricots. A good local source would be your local home wine brewing supply store, as sodium bisulfite is widely used for sanitizing the fruit juices to be used in wine, to stop yeast growth, and as a preservative. Camden Tablets are a product sometimes used in wine-making; each tablet contains 1/16th teaspoon (0.3 ml) of sodium bisulfite.

Here is the chemical equation describing the neutralization reaction between sodium hypochlorite and sodium metabisulfite:

Na2S2O5 + 2NaOCl + H2O —> 2NaHSO4 + 2NaCl

An alternative reaction is as follows:

Na2S2O5 + 2NaOCl + H2O —> 2Na2SO4 + 2HCl

(Source: R.J. Xie et al. Desalination and Water Treatment vol. 3 (2009): pp 193–203 [PDF].)

Thiosulfate

Sodium thiosulfate, also known as Bleach Stop, is another excellent choice for neutralizing chlorine bleach. It is less economical than Anti-chlor because you must use a much larger quantity to prepare your bleach neutralizing bath. Thiosulfate is commonly used in developing photographs, so you may be able to find a local supplier in the form of a photography supply store. The reaction between thiosulfate and hypochlorite is as follows:

4 NaClO + Na2S2O3 + 2 NaOH → 4 NaCl + 2 Na2SO4 + H2O

Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a third choice, perhaps preferable for asthmatics who are sensitive to the effects of sulfur-containing chemicals. It is more expensive than Anti-chlor or Bleach Stop, but it has the advantage of being readily available at pharmacies. Look for 3% hydrogen peroxide among the first aid supplies at your local drug store. The chemical reaction between hypochlorite (the active ingredient in chlorine bleach) and hydrogen peroxide is as follows:

OCl- + H2O2 -> Cl- + H2O + O2

Occasional Advisor
chemopharm
Posts: 5
Registered: ‎08-16-2012
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Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Hi,

 

Covidien has signed a contract for exclusive rights to Surface Safe.  We hope to launch this product by the end of next month. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions or need any further information.

 

Thank you,

Michael Keenan

Michael Keenan - Account Representative
Exclusive Products Division
Covidien| 15 Hampshire Street | Mansfield, MA. 02048
O: 508.261.6645 |F: 508.261.6017
Covidien| Positive Results for Life
Occasional Visitor
mb5647
Posts: 1
Registered: ‎08-21-2012
0

Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

i heard that covidien will soon be carrying surface safe in a month or two

Established Member
Brendachanpl
Posts: 3
Registered: ‎11-25-2012
0

Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Hi

Has Surface Safe been launched by Covidien?

 

Thank you

Brenda

Advisor
HCawood
Posts: 13
Registered: ‎07-19-2011
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Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Brenda,

 

Surface Safe is available again.  I'm not sure who manufactures it now, but we buy it through Health Care Logistics.

 

Haleigh

Established Member
Brendachanpl
Posts: 3
Registered: ‎11-25-2012
0

Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Thanks Haleigh. Actually I am practising in Hong Kong. I shall find out if there is an agent selling this product here.

 

Brenda

Occasional Visitor
rita
Posts: 1
Registered: ‎12-05-2012
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Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Michael Keenan,

 

Are the surface safe wipes available yet?  If so where can they be purchased?

 

Thank you

Rita Miller

Pharmacy Buyer

Occasional Advisor
chemopharm
Posts: 5
Registered: ‎08-16-2012
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Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Hi Rita,

 

Surface Safe is available! It can be purchased directly through Covidien and most distributors/wholesalers. Please send me an email and I will put you in contact with your account rep so they can get your pricing set up.

 

Thanks,

Mike

Michael Keenan - Account Representative
Exclusive Products Division
Covidien| 15 Hampshire Street | Mansfield, MA. 02048
O: 508.261.6645 |F: 508.261.6017
Covidien| Positive Results for Life
Occasional Advisor
chemopharm
Posts: 5
Registered: ‎08-16-2012
0

Re: Decontamination of Hazadous Preparations

Michael.a.keenan@covidien.com  

Michael Keenan - Account Representative
Exclusive Products Division
Covidien| 15 Hampshire Street | Mansfield, MA. 02048
O: 508.261.6645 |F: 508.261.6017
Covidien| Positive Results for Life
Frequent Visitor
Deanna
Posts: 1
Registered: ‎01-13-2014
0

Re: Decontamination of Hazardous Preparations

Does anyone have any stability or sterility data for compounding solutions of sodium thiosulfate and 2% bleach solutions?